UK GOVERNMENT FIRE DOOR REGULATIONS
Fire Safety: Approved Document B – Page 135
C1 All fire doorsets should have the performance shown in Table C1, based on one of the following.
a. Fire resistance in terms of integrity, for a period of minutes, when tested to BS 476-22, e.g. FD 30. A suffix (S) is added for doorsets where restricted smoke leakage at ambient temperatures is needed.
b. As determined with reference to Commission Decision 2000/367/EC regarding the classification of the resistance to fire performance of construction products, construction works and parts thereof. All fire doorsets should be classified in accordance with BS EN 13501-2, tested to the relevant European method from the following.
i. BS EN 1634-1.
ii. BS EN 1634-2.
iii. BS EN 1634-3.
c. As determined with reference to European Parliament and Council Directive 95/16/EC (which applies to lifts that permanently serve buildings and constructions and specified safety components) on the approximation of laws of Member States relating to lifts (‘Lifts Directive’) implementing the Lifts Regulations 1997 (SI 1997/831) and calling upon the harmonised standard BS EN 81-58.
C2 The performance requirement is in terms of integrity (E) for a period of minutes. An additional classification of Sa is used for all doors where restricted smoke leakage at ambient temperatures is needed.
C3 The requirement is for test exposure from each side of the doorset separately. The exception is lift doors, which are tested from the landing side only.
C4 Any test evidence used to verify the fire resistance rating of a doorset or shutter should be checked to ensure both of the following.
a. It adequately demonstrates compliance.
b. It is applicable to the complete installed assembly. Small differences in detail may significantly affect the rating.
Until relevant harmonised product standards are published, for the purposes of meeting the Building Regulations, products tested in accordance with BS EN 1634-1 (with or without pre-fire test mechanical conditioning) that achieve the minimum performance in Table C1 will be deemed to satisfy the provisions.
C5 All fire doorsets, including to flat entrances and between a dwellinghouse and an integral garage, should be fitted with a self-closing device, except for all of the following.
a. Fire doorsets to cupboards.
b. Fire doorsets to service ducts normally locked shut.
c. Fire doorsets within flats and dwellinghouses.
C6 If a self-closing device would be considered to interfere with the normal approved use of the building, self-closing fire doors may be held open by one of the following.
a. A fusible link, but not if the doorset is in an opening provided as a means of escape unless it complies with paragraph
b. An automatic release mechanism activated by an automatic fire detection and alarm system.
c. A door closer delay device.
C7 Two fire doorsets may be fitted in the same opening if each door is capable of closing the opening, so the total fire resistance is the sum of their individual resistances. If the opening is provided as a means of escape, both fire doorsets should be self-closing. If one fire doorset is capable of being easily opened by hand and has a minimum of 30 minutes’ fire resistance, the other fire doorset should comply with both of the following.
a. Be fitted with an automatic self-closing device.
b. Be held open by a fusible link.
C8 Fire doorsets often do not provide any significant insulation. Unless providing both integrity and insulation in accordance with Appendix B, Table B3, a maximum of 25% of the length of a compartment wall should consist of door openings. Where it is practicable to maintain a clear space on both sides of the doorway, the above percentage may be greater.
C9 Rolling shutters should be capable of manual opening and closing for firefighting purposes (see Section 15). Rolling shutters across a means of escape should only be released by a heat sensor, such as a fusible link or electric heat detector, in the immediate vicinity of the door. Unless a shutter is also intended to partially descend as part of a boundary to a smoke reservoir, shutters across a means of escape should not be closed by smoke detectors or a fire alarm system.
C10 Unless shown to be satisfactory when tested as part of a fire doorset assembly, the essential components of any hinge on which a fire door is hung should be made entirely from materials that have a minimum melting point of 800°C.
C11 Except for doorsets listed in paragraph C12, all fire doorsets should be marked with one of the following fire safety signs, complying with BS 5499-5, as appropriate.
a. To be kept closed when not in use – mark ‘Fire door keep shut’.
b. To be kept locked when not in use – mark ‘Fire door keep locked shut’.
c. Held open by an automatic release mechanism or free swing device – mark ‘Automatic fire door keep clear’.
All fire doorsets should be marked on both sides, except fire doorsets to cupboards and service ducts, which should be marked on the outside.
C12 The following fire doorsets are not required to comply with paragraph C11.
a. Doors to and within flats and dwellinghouses.
b. Bedroom doors in ‘residential (other)’ (purpose group 2(b)) premises.
c. Lift entrance/landing doors.
C13 The performance of some doorsets set out in Table C1 is linked to the minimum periods of fire resistance for elements of structure given in Tables B3 and B4. Limitations on the use of uninsulated glazing in fire doorsets are given in Table B5.
C14 Recommendations for the specification, design, construction, installation and maintenance of fire doorsets constructed with non-metallic door leaves are given in BS 8214.
Guidance on timber fire resisting doorsets, in relation to the new European test standard, may be found in Timber Fire Resisting Doorsets: Maintaining Performance Under the New European Test Standard published by the Timber Research and Development Association (TRADA).
Guidance for metal doors is given in Code of Practice for Fire Resisting Metal Doorsets published by the Door and Shutter Manufacturers’ Association (DSMA).
C15 Hardware used on fire doors can significantly affect their performance in a fire. Notwithstanding the guidance in this approved document, guidance is available in Hardware for Fire and Escape Doors published by the Door and Hardware Federation (DHF) and Guild of Architectural Ironmongers (GAI).